In 2014, an online survey was launched to assess impacts of bee losses in Brazil (honeybees, stingless bees, and solitary bees). Events from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected on a website
http://www.semabelhasemalimento.com.br/beealert as well as in apps for smartphones and tablets. In total, 322 post-confirmed qualified reports (287 for honeybee, 33 for stingless bee, 2 for solitary bee) were included in our analyses. Overall, 19,296 of 37,453 colonies and nests were lost (estimated > 1 billion bees). Losses were highest for Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera ), followed by stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula . Honeybee 95% confidence intervals (CI) for loss rates on the basis of year, 5-year interval, regions, and operation sizes were estimated using a generalized linear model (GLM) for total loss (TL ) and a Wald method for average losses (AL). Other species losses were mentioned in the text. Based on information from respondents, pesticide exposures were suspected as the main cause of nest and colony losses. In São Paulo State, which accounted for 45.7% of total reports, neonicotinoids and fipronil led pesticide are listed in 55.9% of reports (fipronil, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam are widely used in sugar cane plantations and orange groves in this state).
D. Castilhos et al. (2019) Apidologie DOI: 10.1007/s13592-019-00642-7