We evaluated the efects of repeated larval exposure to neonicotinoid insecticide, both in isolation and in combination with strobilurin fungicide, at environmentally relevant doses. The total consumption of the contaminated diet was 23.63 ng fungicide/larvae (pyraclostrobin) and 0.2364 ng insecticide/larvae (clothianidin). The efects on post-embryonic development were evaluated over time. Additionally, we assessed the survival pattern of worker bees after emergence, and the pesticides’ effects on the behavior of newly emerged workers and young workers. Young bees that were exposed to the fungicide and those subjected to co-exposure to both pesticides during larval phase showed behavioral changes. The insecticide, both in isolation and in combination with fungicide reduced the bees’ longevity.
Source: Tadei R et al. Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 3277 (2019)